This document is based on the article "What we can put into the HEAD tag", and here we can see a list of head elements.

Normal Elements

<!-- title of the document -->
<title>Page Title</title>

<!-- base url for relative path of sources -->
<!-- in HTML, base tag can be without closed tag -->
<base href="http://aleen42.github.io">
<!-- in XHTML, the closed tag should be here -->
<base href="http://aleen42.github.io" />

<!-- style sheets -->
body {
    margin: 0; 
    padding: 0;

<!-- script -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="./main.js"></script>

Meta Elements

This kind of elements will provide meta data about HTML documents, and they won't be shown on the page. However, they can be read by machines, used for browsers, search engine and other web servers.


    content-type(setting fonts set)

<!-- HTML old version -->
<meta http-equiv="content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
<!-- HTML5 -->
<meta charset="utf-8">


    use the newest IE version and Chrome

<meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">


    kernel control

    most browsers in China will use one of these kernels: Webkit for Chrome or Trident for IE.
    Webkit: used for fast rendering
    Trident: used for compatibility of old sites
<meta name="renderer" content="webkit|ie-comp|ie_stand">


    viewport for mobile website

    viewport is used to optimize presentation of mobile website, 
    and if the website is not reponsive, it's not recommended that 
    use `initial-scale=1` and `user-scalable=no`
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">



    keywords is used for easily searching in a search engine. When you
    set up your keywords, people can search your website with the keywords
    you set.
    It's suggested to set more keywords and not more than 874 characters.
<meta name="keywords" content="aleen42,personalwiki">



    each site should have a description itself which should not be
    more than 150 characters.
<meta name="description" content="not more than 150 characters">

<!-- subjects -->
<meta name="subject" content="your subjects of your site">


    search engines

    content value:
    "all": file will get index, and all the links of this site can be searched.
    "none": file won't get index, and all the links of this site cannot be searched.
    "index": file will get index.
    "follow": all the links of this site can be searched.
    "noindex": file won't get index.
    "nofollow": all the links of this site cannot be searched.
<meta name="googlebot" content="index,follow">


    other elements

<meta name="google" content="nositelinkssearchbox">
<meta name="google-site-verification" content="verification_token">
<meta name="abstract" content="">
<meta name="topic" content="">
<meta name="summary" content="">
<meta name="classification" content="business">
<meta name="url" content="https://example.com/">
<meta name="identifier-URL" content="https://example.com/">
<meta name="directory" content="submission">
<meta name="category" content="">
<meta name="coverage" content="Worldwide">
<meta name="distribution" content="Global">
<meta name="rating" content="General">
<meta name="referrer" content="never">
<meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="default-src 'self'">


    social elements

<!-- Facebook/Open Graph -->
<meta property="fb:app_id" content="123456789">
<meta property="og:url" content="https://example.com/page.html">
<meta property="og:type" content="website">
<meta property="og:title" content="Content Title">
<meta property="og:image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">
<meta property="og:description" content="Description Here">
<meta property="og:site_name" content="Site Name">
<meta property="og:locale" content="en_US">
<meta property="article:author" content="">
<!-- Facebook: https://developers.facebook.com/docs/sharing/webmasters#markup -->
<!-- Open Graph: http://ogp.me/ -->

<!-- Twitter -->
<meta name="twitter:card" content="summary">
<meta name="twitter:site" content="@site_account">
<meta name="twitter:creator" content="@individual_account">
<meta name="twitter:url" content="https://example.com/page.html">
<meta name="twitter:title" content="Content Title">
<meta name="twitter:description" content="Content description less than 200 characters">
<meta name="twitter:image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">
<!-- More info: https://dev.twitter.com/cards/getting-started -->
<!-- Validate: https://dev.twitter.com/docs/cards/validation/validator -->

<!-- Google+/Schema.org -->
<meta itemprop="name" content="Content Title">
<meta itemprop="description" content="Content description less than 200 characters">
<meta itemprop="image" content="https://example.com/image.jpg">


    browsers/platforms elements

<!-- apple iOS -->
<!-- Smart App Banner -->
<meta name="apple-itunes-app" content="app-id=APP_ID,affiliate-data=AFFILIATE_ID,app-argument=SOME_TEXT">

<!-- Disable automatic detection and formatting of possible phone numbers -->
<meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no">

<!-- Add to Home Screen -->
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes">
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style" content="black">
<meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-title" content="App Title">

<!-- Touch Icons -->
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="apple-touch-icon.png">
<link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png">
<!-- In most cases, one 180×180px touch icon in the head is enough -->
<!-- If you use art-direction and/or want to have different content for each device, you can add more touch icons -->

<!-- Startup Image -->
<link rel="apple-touch-startup-image" href="startup.png">

<!-- More info: https://developer.apple.com/safari/library/documentation/appleapplications/reference/safarihtmlref/articles/metatags.html -->

<!-- apple safari -->
<!-- Pinned Site -->
<link rel="mask-icon" href="icon.svg" color="red">

<!-- google Android -->
<meta name="theme-color" content="#E64545">

<!-- Add to homescreen -->
<meta name="mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes">
<!-- More info: https://developer.chrome.com/multidevice/android/installtohomescreen -->

<!-- google Chrome -->
<link rel="chrome-webstore-item" href="https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/APP_ID">

<!-- Disable translation prompt -->
<meta name="google" value="notranslate">

<!-- microsoft Internet Explorer -->
<meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
<meta http-equiv="cleartype" content="on">
<meta name="skype_toolbar" content="skype_toolbar_parser_compatible">

<!-- Pinned Site -->
<!-- IE 10 / Windows 8 -->
<meta name="msapplication-TileImage" content="pinned-tile-144.png">
<meta name="msapplication-TileColor" content="#009900">
<!-- IE 11 / Windows 9.1 -->
<meta name="msapplication-config" content="ieconfig.xml">

<!-- IE Legacy Tags (DO NOT USE) -->
<meta name="mssmarttagspreventparsing" content="true">
<meta http-equiv="page-enter" content="revealtrans(duration=2,transition=2)">
<meta http-equiv="page-exit" content="revealtrans(duration=3,transition=12)">

<!-- 360 Browser -->
<!-- select rendering engine in order -->
<meta name="renderer" content="webkit|ie-comp|ie-stand">

<!-- UC Mobile Browser -->
<!-- Locks the screen into the specified orientation -->
<meta name="screen-orientation" content="landscape/portrait">
<!-- Display this page in fullscreen -->
<meta name="full-screen" content="yes">
<!-- UC browser will display images even if in "text mode" -->
<meta name="imagemode" content="force">
<!-- Page will be displayed in "application mode"(fullsreen,forbiding gesture, etc.) -->
<meta name="browsermode" content="application">
<!-- Disabled the UC browser's "night mode" in this page -->
<meta name="nightmode" content="disable">
<!-- Simplify the page to reduce data transfer -->
<meta name="layoutmode" content="fitscreen">
<!-- Disable the UC browser's feature of "scaling font up when there are many words in this page" -->
<meta name="wap-font-scale" content="no">

<!-- QQ Mobile Browser -->
<!-- Locks the screen into the specified orientation -->
<meta name="x5-orientation" content="landscape/portrait">
<!-- Display this page in fullscreen -->
<meta name="x5-fullscreen" content="true">
<!-- Page will be displayed in "application mode"(fullsreen,etc.) -->
<meta name="x5-page-mode" content="app">

Here I have listed some meta elments which are either deprecated or not supported in browsers anymore.

<!-- language -->
    this meta elements is deprecated and better use <html lang=""> instead.
<!-- HTML old version -->
<meta name="language" content="zh-CN">
<!-- HTML5 -->
<meta http-equiv="content-language" content="zh-CN" />

<!-- search engines -->
<!-- Deprecated because: Ignored by search engines. Better use robots.txt or modify .htaccess -->
<meta name="robots" content="index,follow">

<!-- Deprecated because: No evidence of use in any search engines -->
<meta name="revised" content="Monday, May 9th, 2016, 11:27 am">

    Deprecated because: Telling the search bots to revisit the page after a period.
    This is not supported because most of the Search Engines nowadays have random 
    intervals for recrawling a webpage.
<meta name="revisit-after" content="7 days">

<!-- personal info -->
<!-- Deprecated because: Provides a easy way for bots to get emails from websites -->
<meta name="reply-to" content="email@example.com">

<!-- Deprecated because: Better to use <link rel="author"> or humans.txt file -->
<meta name="author" content="name, email@example.com">

<!-- Deprecated because: Better to use <link rel="author"> or humans.txt file -->
<meta name="designer" content="aleen42">

<!-- Deprecated because: Better to use <link rel="author"> or humans.txt file -->
<meta name="owner" content="aleen42">

<!-- redirect -->
<!-- Google strongly advises not to use this. Better to set up Apache redirects instead -->
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="300;url=https://example.com/">

<!-- cache -->
    Deprecated because: There's no point in doing cache control on client side.
    It is better to configure it on server side than in meta data
<meta http-equiv="Expires" content="0">
<meta http-equiv="Pragma" content="no-cache">
<meta http-equiv="Cache-Control" content="no-cache">

This kind of elements is used to define a relationship between the document and other outdoor resources.

<link rel="copyright" href="copyright.html">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://example.com/styles.css">
<link rel="alternate" href="https://feeds.feedburner.com/martini" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS">
<link rel="alternate" href="https://example.com/feed.atom" type="application/atom+xml" title="Atom 0.3">
<link rel="alternate" href="https://es.example.com/" hreflang="es">
<link rel="me" href="https://google.com/profiles/thenextweb" type="text/html">
<link rel="archives" href="https://example.com/2003/05/" title="May 2003">
<link rel="index" href="https://example.com/" title="DeWitt Clinton">
<link rel="start" href="https://example.com/photos/pattern_recognition_1_about/" title="Pattern Recognition 1">
<link rel="prev" href="https://example.com/opensearch/opensearch-and-openid-a-sure-way-to-get-my-attention/" title="OpenSearch and OpenID? A sure way to get my attention.">
<link rel="search" href="/search.xml" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" title="Viatropos">
<link rel="self" type="application/atom+xml" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=3">
<link rel="first" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php">
<link rel="next" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=4">
<link rel="previous" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=2">
<link rel="last" href="https://example.com/atomFeed.php?page=147">
<link rel="shortlink" href="https://example.com/?p=43625">
<link rel="canonical" href="https://example.com/2010/06/9-things-to-do-before-entering-social-media.html">
<link rel="amphtml" href="https://www.example.com/url/to/amp-version.html">
<link rel="EditURI" href="https://example.com/xmlrpc.php?rsd" type="application/rsd+xml" title="RSD">
<link rel="pingback" href="https://example.com/xmlrpc.php">
<link rel="webmention" href="https://example.com/webmention">
<link rel="manifest" href="manifest.json">
<link rel="author" href="humans.txt">
<link rel="import" href="component.html">

<!-- Prefetching, preloading, prebrowsing -->
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//example.com/">
<link rel="preconnect" href="https://www.example.com/">
<link rel="prefetch" href="https://www.example.com/">
<link rel="prerender" href="https://example.com/">
<link rel="subresource" href="styles.css">
<link rel="preload" href="image.png">
<!-- More info: https://css-tricks.com/prefetching-preloading-prebrowsing/ -->

<!-- Favicons -->
<link rel="icon" href="path/to/favicon-16.png" sizes="16x16" type="image/png">
<link rel="icon" href="path/to/favicon-32.png" sizes="32x32" type="image/png">
<link rel="icon" href="path/to/favicon-48.png" sizes="48x48" type="image/png">
<link rel="icon" href="path/to/favicon-62.png" sizes="62x62" type="image/png">
<!-- More info: https://bitsofco.de/all-about-favicons-and-touch-icons/ -->

Here I have listed some meta elments which are either deprecated or not supported in browsers anymore.

<link rel="shortcut icon" href="path/to/favicon.ico">
<!-- iOS -->
<meta property="al:ios:url" content="applinks://docs">
<meta property="al:ios:app_store_id" content="12345">
<meta property="al:ios:app_name" content="App Links">
<!-- Android -->
<meta property="al:android:url" content="applinks://docs">
<meta property="al:android:app_name" content="App Links">
<meta property="al:android:package" content="org.applinks">
<!-- Web Fallback -->
<meta property="al:web:url" content="http://applinks.org/documentation">
<!-- More info: http://applinks.org/documentation/ -->

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