- Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing schedule and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries.
- Every project should have a well-defined objective.
- Projects should be developed in increments.
- Resources in a project should be used effectively because they are limited.
- One of the main reasons why project management is challenging is because of the factor of uncertainty.
- A project's stakeholders consist of its customers, users, and suppliers.
- Project human resource management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with a project.
- Stakeholder analyses, work requests, and project charters are tools used in integration management.
- Maturity models, statistical methods, and test plans are examples of tools used in quality management.
- Project managers work with the project sponsors to define success for particular projects.
- Program managers are change agents.
- The introduction of new software makes basic tools, such as Gantt charts and network diagrams, inexpensive and easy to create.
- Using a systems approach is critical to successful project management.
- Project managers and their teams must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and needs of the entire system or organization instead of focusing on the immediate concerns of the project.
- According to the symbolic frame, the most important aspect of any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means.
- Most colleges and universities have very strong functional organizations.
- An organization that uses a project organizational structure earns their revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract.
- Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects.
- The same organization can have different subcultures.
- Project managers must take adequate(足夠的) time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders.
- Project managers must have cooperation from people in other parts of the organization.
- Standards and guidelines to follow when performing project management must be devised by top management.
- The Adaptive Software Development (ASD) life cycle model assumes that software development follows an adaptive approach because the requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle.
- An organization usually commits more money as a project continues, therefore a management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals.
- Initiating processes take place during each phase of a project.
- The level of activity and length of each process group varies for every project.
- The executing process group generally requires the most resources.
- Monitoring and controlling processes overlap all of the other project management process groups.
- The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) methodology of the Six Sigma projects, is used to improve an existing business process.
- Identifying the project sponsor is a pre-initiation task.
- The WBS provides a basis for creating the project schedule and performing earned value management for measuring and forecasting project performance.
- A sprint review is a meeting in which the team demonstrates to the product owner what it has completed during the sprint.
- In the Scrum method, team members work as a self-directed group coached by the ScrumMaster.
- The two main items for monitoring and controlling in the Scrum framework are the daily Scrum and the sprint retrospectives(回顧).
- Details of kick-off meetings and the stakeholder details are usually recorded in a Word document.
- In project integration management, directing and managing project execution involves carrying out the project management plan by performing the activities included in it.
- Information systems can help an organization support a strategy of being a low-cost producer.
- As projects progress, the organization must reevaluate the need, funding, and will for each project to determine if the project should be continued, redefined, or terminated.
- Projects that arise as a result of problems and directives must be resolved quickly to avoid hurting an organization's business.
- NPV analysis is a method for making equal comparisons between cash flows for multi-year projects.
- An annual discount factor is a multiplier for each year based on the discount rate and year.
- Payback period is the amount of time it will take to recoup, in the form of net cash inflows, the total dollars invested in a project.
- Some organizations initiate projects using a contract in place of a project charter.
- Change requests are always made in writing.
- Organizational process asset updates are an important output of the closing process of a project.
- Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
- Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project.
- The scope management plan can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.
- Information from the project charter provides a basis for further defining the project scope.
- Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.
- The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.
- The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.
- Many organizations provide different guidelines and templates for developing WBSs.
- Mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.
- A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
- Scope creep(慢行) if not managed well can lead to the failure of information technology projects.
- An activity is an element of work that has an expected duration, cost, and resource requirements.
- Project schedules grow out of basic documents such as the project charter.
- A schedule management plan includes information which describes the format and frequency of schedule reports required for the project.
- To define activities, the project team should start with reviewing the schedule management plan, scope baseline, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational processes.
- It is important for the activity list and activity attributes to be in agreement with the work breakdown structure.
- A dependency pertains(屬於) to the sequencing of project activities or tasks.
- Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing.
- A Tracking Gantt chart is based on the percentage of work completed for project tasks or the actual start and finish dates.
- The critical path on a project can change as the project progresses.
- IT project managers must be able to present and discuss project information both in financial and technical terms.
- If an important supplier goes out of business, management reserves can be set aside to cover the resulting costs.
- A cost management plan can include organizational procedures links, control thresholds(臨界值) and process descriptions.
- Definitive estimates are made one year or less prior to project completion.
- Estimates should become more accurate as time progresses.
- Supporting details for an estimate include the ground rules and assumptions used in creating the estimate.
- In a bottom-up estimate, the size of the individual work items is one of the factors that drives the accuracy of the estimates.
- Parametric models are reliable when the models are flexible in terms of the project's size.
- One of the reasons why project cost estimates are inaccurate is because human beings are biased(偏向於) toward underestimation(低估).
- It is important for project managers to understand that every cost estimate is unique.
- Determining the budget involves allocating the project cost estimate to individual work items over time.
- The project management plan and project funding requirements are inputs of the process of controlling costs.
- The formulas for variances and indexes start with EV, the earned value.
- Spreadsheets are a common tool for cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.
- The quality assurance process involves taking responsibility for quality throughout the project's life cycle.
- Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects.
- Products that are accepted by project stakeholders are considered to be validated(有效的) deliverables.
- Using Six Sigma principles is an organization-wide commitment and all employees must embrace its principles.
- The Six Sigma approach works best for a project where a quality problem is identified between the current and desired performance.
- In TQC, product quality is more important than production rates, and workers are allowed to stop production whenever a quality problem occurs.
- Gantt charts cannot be used to aid project quality management.
- Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that people's behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs.
- People who need institutional power or social power want to organize others to further the goals of the organization.
- Thamhain and Wilemon found that when project managers used work challenge and expertise to influence people, projects were more likely to succeed.
- A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the project team.
- Resource leveling results in fewer problems for project personnel(職員) and accounting departments.
- In the Tuckman model, storming occurs when team members have different opinions for how the team should operate.
- The first dimension of psychological(心理上的) type in the MBTI signifies(表示) whether people draw their energy from other people (extroverts(性格外向的人)) or from inside themselves (introverts(性格内向的人)).
- Adding more people to a project that is falling behind schedule often causes more setbacks(逆流) because of the increased complexity of communications.
- People have different personality traits(特徵) that often affect their communication preferences.
- Rarely does the receiver interpret a message exactly as the sender intended.
- It is extremely important to document any changes in technical specifications that might affect product performance.
- In a project, communicating badly exponentially increases the possibility of making mistakes.
- The communications management plan varies with the needs of the project.
- Most WBSs include a section for project communications to ensure that reporting key information is a project deliverable.
- Project managers must assess the needs of the organization, the project, and individuals in determining which communication medium to use, and when.
- Status reports can take various formats depending on the stakeholders' needs.
- A facilitator(促進…的事物) can help the team solve any communication problems.
- Good information technology project managers must have strong technical and communication skills.
- Do not have a meeting if there is a better way of achieving the objective at hand.
- A difference between operations and projects is that operations end when their objectives have been reached, whereas projects do not.
wrong reason: projects also end when objectives have been reached
- A project manager's primary role is to provide the funding for a project.
wrong reason: it's the project sponsors to provide
- Questions about how a team will track schedule performance is related to a project's scope.
wrong reason: it's the project's time
- In order to be realistic, a project manager should always set discrete(互不相連的) goals instead of a range of objectives.
wrong reason: projects involve uncertainty and limited resources. Thus they rarely finish according to their original scope, time, and cost goals
- Managing the triple constraint primarily involves making trade-offs between resources and quality.
wrong reason: should be between scope, time and cost
- The only responsibility of a project manager is to meet the specific scope, time, and cost goals of a project.
wrong reason: he/she should also facilitate(促进) the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders
- Opponents of a project do not belong to the category of stakeholders.
wrong reason: stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities, and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of a project
- The importance of stakeholders' needs and expectations is limited to the beginning of a project.
wrong reason: through the whole life cycle of projects
- Project procurement management primarily involves identifying stakeholder needs while managing their engagement throughout the life of the project.
wrong reason: procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization
- The primary role of project stakeholder management is to ensure that the project will satisfy the stated needs for which it was undertaken.
wrong reason: stakeholder management includes identifying and analyzing stakeholder needs while managing and controlling their engagement throughout the life of the product
- Earned value management is a tool primarily used in human resource management.
wrong reason: it's primarily used in cost management
- Responsibility assignment matrices and project organizational charts are examples of tools used in procurement management.
wrong reason: it's primarily used in human resource management
- Good project managers assume that their definition of success is the same as the sponsors.
wrong reason: obviously they won't do that
- Effective program managers recognize that managing a project is much more complex than managing a program.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- Individual projects always address strategic goals whereas portfolio management addresses tactical goals.
wrong reason: tactical goals are short-term while strategic goals are long-term
- It is mandatory(強制的) for project managers working on large information technology projects to be experts in the field of information technology.
wrong reason: it's not mandatory
- To be a successful manager, the only skills an IT project manager needs to possess is excellent technical skills.
wrong reason: it's business and soft skills which should be needed to possess
- The enterprise project management software, which aids project and portfolio management, is a low-end tool.
wrong reason: it's a high-end one
- Project managers should lead projects in isolation in order to truly serve the needs of the organization.
wrong reason: the project can't be run in isolation
- Systems analysis addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and modifying a system.
wrong reason: it's system management which does it
- When you separate business and organizational issues from project management planning, you do a better job of ensuring project success.
wrong reason: they should not be separated
- Most people believe that the underlying causes of many companies' problems can be traced to its organizational structure.
wrong reason: it's the organizational culture, but not the structure
- Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where activities are organized around individuals.
wrong reason: it's groups or teams, but not individuals
- An organizational culture with strong unit integration makes the project manager's job more difficult.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- Internal stakeholders include groups affected by the project such as government officials or concerned citizens.
wrong reason: they're external stakeholders(outside the organization)
- The best way to sustain a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility for the project.
wrong reason: it's the worst way
- It is much more expensive to make major changes to a project during the earlier phases.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- The last phase of the traditional project life cycle is the implementation phase.
wrong reason: it's close-out phase
- The nature of hardware development projects is more diverse than software-oriented projects.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- The team members of a virtual team are all of the same nationality.
wrong reason: a virtual team is a group of people who work together despite time and space boundaries using communication technologies, thus they can be from different nationalities
- Leadership style has no impact on the success of virtual teams.
wrong reason: of course it has
- Decisions and actions taken in one knowledge area at a certain time rarely affect other knowledge areas.
wrong reason: it usally affects
- Initiating processes are not required to end a project.
wrong reason: they are also required to end a project. Someone must initiate activities to ensure that the project team completes all the work, documents lessons learned, assigns project resources, and that the customer accepts the work
- Initiating and closing tasks are usually the longest and require the most amount of resources and time.
wrong reason: they are usally the shortest
- Key outcomes of the executing process group are formal acceptance of the work and creation of closing documents.
wrong reason: they're key outcomes of closing process
- Agile methods comprise of 45 subprocesses which are organized into eight process groups.
wrong reason: it's PRINCE2 standard
- The Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework is incompatible with the PMBOK process.
wrong reason: it's compatible
- An organization's project management plan expresses the vision, mission, goals, objectives, and strategies of the organization.
wrong reason: it's the organization's strategic plan
- The output of the stakeholder management strategy results is a project charter.
wrong reason: the output is a stakeholder register
- The kick-off meeting is always held before the business case and project charter are completed.
wrong reason: it's always held after but not before
- A milestone list is an output associated with the Project Scope Management knowledge area.
wrong reason: it's the Project Time Management but not the Project Scope Management
- Project initiation involves taking the actions necessary to ensure that activities in the project plan are completed.
wrong reason: it's not initiation but execution
- The pre-initiation phase of a project using the Scrum method does not involve project charters, stakeholder management strategy, and kick-off meetings.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- Interface management involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of a project.
wrong reason: it does not invole and it's project integration management which involves
- The number of interfaces in a single project is limited, and does not depend on the number of people involved in the project.
wrong reason: the number of interfaces can increase exponentially(指數) as the number of people involved in a project increases
- Project integration management must occur just within the context of a particular project.
wrong reason: it must occur within the entire organization but not a particular project
- A SWOT analysis, being a linear process, cannot be performed using the nonlinear mind mapping technique.
wrong reason: of course it can
- An organization's information technology project selection process should guide the strategic plan.
wrong reason: it's reversed that an organization's strategic plan should guide the IT project selection process
- Projects that address broad organizational needs are likely to fail.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- Opportunities and directives are essentially the same thing.
wrong reason: opportunities are chances to improve the organization, while directives are new requirements imposed(推行) by management, government, or some external influence
- The organization should complete low-priority projects before high-priority ones, if the low-priority ones take less time.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- An organization should consider only projects with a negative NPV if financial value is a key criterion for project selection.
wrong reason: with a positive NPV but not a negative one
- The ROI is always positive.
wrong reason: it can be negative
- A project charter typically does not authorize the project manager to use organizational resources to complete the project.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- The introduction or overview of a project must only include a list of definitions and acronyms(縮寫詞).
wrong reason: it should includes the following information: the project name, a brief description of the project and the need it addresses, the sponsor's name, the names of the project manager and key team members, deliverables of the project, a list of important reference materials and a list of definitions and acronyms
- A Gantt chart is the same as a project management plan.
wrong reason: obviously, they are not the same
- It is necessary that IT project managers have prior technical experience in creating and managing IT products.
wrong reason: it's helpful but it's not necessary
- Corrective actions reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks, while preventive actions should result in improvements in project performance.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- Deliverables are only product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software.
wrong reason: deliverables can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes
- The project's size, complexity, importance, and other factors do not affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements for scope planning.
wrong reason: it affects
- Project scope statements must include the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.
wrong reason: project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria(標準), and detailed information on all project deliverables, but the project boundaries, constraints and assumptions are just helpful but not neccessary
- The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start.
wrong reason: as time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific
- The scope baseline in a WBS consists of the requirements documentation and enterprise environmental factors.
wrong reason: the scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
- The WBS is organized solely(只) around project phases.
wrong reason: obviously, it's not. It can be around project products, project phases, or the project management process groups
- A work package represents one component of the product that the project aims to deliver.
wrong reason: a work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. It represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls
- A work package must always represent less than 80 hours of work.
wrong reason: it depends on the schedule of the whole project
- The tasks in a WBS must be developed as a sequential list of steps.
wrong reason: do not need to
- The executing tasks of the WBS remain constant from project to project.
wrong reason: similar but not constant
- In project time management, the primary output of defining activities is a schedule management plan.
wrong reason: Instead, outputs should be an activity list, activity attributes, a milestone list, and project management plan updates
- In project time management, the next step after sequencing activities is to define these activities.
wrong reason: the next step should be estimating activity resources
- Milestones are easy to achieve and are always achieved through one main activity.
wrong reason: it often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone, but the milestone itself is like a marker to help in identifying necessary activities
- After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is developing the schedule.
wrong reason: the next step in project time management is sequencing them or determining their dependencies
- The arrows in a network diagram represent missed milestones in a project.
wrong reason: it represents the activity sequencing or relationships between tasks
- In a network diagram, it is mandatory for every item on the WBS to be shown instead of only those activities with dependencies.
wrong reason: not every item should be, and only activities with dependencies need to be shown
- A merge occurs when one node precedes(在...前面) mutiple nodes.
wrong reason: a merge occurs when two or more nodes precede a single node, and this is the situation of separating
- Start-to-finish relationships are the most frequently used dependencies between activities.
wrong reason: it's rarely used, in four types of relationships: start-to-satrt, start-to-finish, finish-to-start and finish-to-finish
- A drawback of the precedence diagramming method is that it cannot be used unless dummy(假的) activities are employed.
wrong reason: using this method avoids the need to use dummy activities is an advantage
- In project time management, one should control the scheule before estimating the duration for each activity.
wrong reason: before one can estimate the duration for each activity, one must have a good idea of the quantity and type of resources
- In a Gantt chart, thick black bars represent milestones achieved in a project.
wrong reason: a black diamond(◆) symbol represents a milestone
- A disadvantage of using Gantt charts is that they do not provide a standard format for displaying planned project schedule information.
wrong reason: this is a main advantage
- In a critical path analysis, the shortest path is what drives the completion date for the project.
wrong reason: it's the longest path
- A backward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity.
wrong reason: it determines the late start and late finish dates, but not the early one
- The main disadvantage of crashing is that it lengthens the time needed to finish a project.
wrong reason: this is the main advantage
- Critical chain scheduling assumes that resources multitask and maximizes multitasking.
wrong reason: it's reversed
- One of PERT's main disadvantages is that it does not address the risk associated with duration estimates.
wrong reason: PERT's main disadvantages are that it involves more work than CPM because it requires several duration estimates
- The final process in project time management is developing the schedule.
wrong reason: the final one is controlling the schedule
- A drawback of the project management software is that it does not have the capacity to calculate the critical path(s) for a project.
wrong reason: the project management software can determine thecritical paths for a project
- Overrun is the additional percentage amount by which estimates exceed actual costs.
wrong reason: it is the additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual costs exceed estimates.
- The primary output of the planning cost management process is a change request.
wrong reason: the primary output is a cost management plan
- Intangible(不可度量的) costs can be easily measured in monetary terms.
wrong reason: it's difficult to measure
- When deciding what projects to invest in or continue, one should include sunk(沉沒的) costs.
wrong reason: sunk cost is money that has been spent in the past, which should not be included
- It is important for project managers to focus on indirect costs because they can be easily controlled.
wrong reason: it's the direct costs which can be easily controlled
- Contingency(偶然事件) reserves are also known as unknown unknowns.
wrong reason: they are known as known unknowns
- A budgetary estimate is the most accurate of the three types of estimates.
wrong reason: it's the definitive estimate but not the budgetary estimate
- Budgetary estimates are made even before a project is officially started.
wrong reason: budgetary estimates are made one to two years prior to project completion
- Analogous(相似的) estimates are called activity-based costing.
wrong reason: they are called top-down estimates
- Analogous estimates are the most accurate technique to estimate costs.
wrong reason:it's the definitive estimate
- If cost variance is a positive number, it means that performing the work costs more than planned.
wrong reason: it means that perfoming the work costs less than planned
- A negative schedule variance means that it took lesser than planned to perform the work.
wrong reason: it means that it took longer
- If the cost performance index (CPI) is less than 100 percent, the project is under budget.
wrong reason: it's over budget
- In an earned value chart, when the actual cost line is right on or above the earned value line, it indicates that costs are less than planned.
wrong reason: it indicates that costs are equal or more than planned
- Validated changes and validated deliverables are the outputs of the quality assurance process.
wrong reason: validated changes and validated deliverables are the outputs of the quality control process.
- The design of experiments technique cannot be applied to project management issues such as cost and schedule trade-offs.
wrong reason: it can apply to
- Customer requirements are an important aspect of the quality planning process.
wrong reason: it is important to describe key factors that directly contribute to meeting the customer's requirements
- Reliability is the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under deviant(異常的) conditions.
wrong reason: under normal conditions but not deviant ones
- Only in-house auditors can perform quality audits.
wrong reason: both in-house auditors or third parties with expertise in specific areas can do this
- A run chart is a bar graph that depicts(描述) data points and their order of occurrence.
wrong reason: it's a line chart but not a bar graph
- The term sigma means median(中值).
wrong reason: it means standard deviation(偏差數)
- Testing as a stage is important only at the end of an information technology product development.
wrong reason: testing should be done almostly through the whole life cycle
- Integration testing involves testing of each individual component to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible.
wrong reason: this is unit test
- DeMarco and Lister's study on organizations and productivity found direct correlations between productivity and programming language, years of experience, and salary.
wrong reason: no correlations
- Extrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment.
wrong reason: extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty
- Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy of needs is not necessarily a prerequisite(前提條件) for the levels above.
wrong reason: it's necessarily a prerequisite
- According to Herzberg, hygiene factors such as larger salaries, more supervision, or a more attractive work environment would motivate workers to do more if present..
wrong reason: they're motivators but not hygiene factors
- Managers who believe in Theory Y assume that workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to make adequate efforts to meet objectives.
wrong reason: it's Theory X but not Y
- Assignment, budget, promotion, money, and penalty influence bases are automatically available to project managers as part of their position.
wrong reason: they are not automatically available
- Legitimate(正當合理的) power involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior.
wrong reason: to get people to do things based on a position of authority but not to change their behavior
- According to Covey, project managers must use a win/lose approach in making decisions.
wrong reason: project managers should strive(力争) to use a win/win approach in making decisions, but in competitive situations they sometimes must use a win/lose paradigm
- A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the OBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the WBS.
wrong reason: WBS describes the work of the project, and OBS describes the people responsible for performing the work
- A RAM is used only to assign detailed work activities.
wrong reason: you can also use it to define general roles and responsibilities on projects
- In the Social Styles Profile team building activity, drivers are reactive and people-oriented.
wrong reason: drivers are proactive(積極向上的) and task-oriented
- The forcing mode is one in which the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of differences and emphasizes areas of agreement.
wrong reason: this is the smoothing mode
- Project managers must try to avoid conflict at all costs as all conflict within groups is bad.
wrong reason: project managers must also realize that not all conflict is bad
- Microsoft Project 2010 does not lend itself to project human resource management.
wrong reason: it provides a variety of human resource management tools, some of which include assigning and tracking resources, resource leveling, resource usage reports, overallocated resource reports and to-do lists
- Project members should either have strong technical skills or soft skills.
wrong reason: should have both two skills
- Geographic location and cultural background have no impact on communications.
wrong reason: it's obviously not
- Communication becomes simpler when you increase the number of team members.
wrong reason: it's just a myth
- Minutes must be a comprehensive report of the meeting that was scheduled.
wrong reason: minutes should be short and focus on the crucial decisions and action items from the meeting
- The email is the most appropriate medium for all types of communications.
wrong reason: it not appropriate for assessing commitment, building consensus, mediating a conflict, resolving a misunderstanding, making an ironic statement, conveying a reference document, reinforcing one's authority, or maintaining confidentiality
- The project summary report is a summary of all the lessons-learned reports.
wrong reason: the project manager often combines information from all of the lessons-learned reports into a project summary report.
- Improving an organization's ability to communication is an easy process.
wrong reason: it's obviously not
- (marked)Until the 1980s, project management primarily focused on providing and resource data to top management in the military, computer, and construction industries.
- A(n) is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
- refers to work done in organizations to sustain the business.
- include people, hardware, software, or other assets.
- A project's sponsor is also known as a(n) .
- In project management, the three limitations of scope, time, and cost are referred to as the .
- The question, "What unique product does the customer expect from the project?" is an example of a(n) constraint.
- The question, "What is the project's schedule?" is an example of a(n) constraint.
- "What is the project's budget?" This is an example of a project's constraint.
- The of project management includes quality, scope, time, and cost constraints.
- (marked) is "the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements."
- Project management describe the key competencies that project managers must develop.
- Project management includes estimating how long it will take to complete work, develop an acceptable project schedule, and ensure timely completion of a project.
- Project management consists of preparing and managing the budget for a project.
- (marked) A(n) is "a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually."
- refers to the process in which organizations group and manage projects and programs as a cluster of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise's success.
- The software integrates information from multiple projects to show the status of active, approved, and future projects across an entire organization.
- (marked) Soft skills are also known as skills.
- The critical path is the path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project.
- (marked) The is an international professional society for project managers founded in 1969.
- Passing the CPA exam is a standard for accountants. Similarly, passing the PMP exam is becoming a standard for .
- (marked) Ethics is a set of principles that guides decision making based on of what is considered right and wrong.
- (marked) tools, a step up from low-end tools, are designed to handle larger projects, multiple users, and multiple projects.
- High-end tools in project management software have enterprise and functions that summarize and combine individual project information to provide an enterprise view of all projects.
- (marked)High-end tools are generally licensed on a(n) basis.
- A(n) is an overall model for thinking about things as sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose.
- are sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose.
- (marked) addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system.
- The three spheres of systems management are business, organization, and .
- The frame of the organization is the one that is usually depicted in an organizational chart.
- (marked)The frame of an organization relates to the company's culture.
- Three general classifications of organizational structures are , project, and matrix.
- In a(n) organizational structure, project managers have little or no authority.
- (marked) refers to the degree to which rules, policies, and direct supervision are used to oversee employee behavior.
- refers to the degree to which work activities are organized around teams, rather than individuals.
- (marked)Some projects have a senior manager called a(n) who acts as a key proponent for a project.
- (marked)A major element of good practice concerns , which addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management.
- A(n) refers to a product or service, such as a report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project.
- In the phase of the project life cycle, the work is completed, and customers should accept the entire project.
- (marked)A(n) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems.
- life cycle models of systems development assume that the scope of the project can be articulated clearly and the schedule and cost can be predicted accurately.
- (marked)The term describes new approaches that focus on close collaboration between programming teams and business experts.
- is an organization's acquisition of goods and services from an outside source.
- A(n) is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.
- progress from initiation activities to planning activities, executing activities, monitoring and controlling activities, and closing activities.
- The ideal outcome of the process group is to complete a project successfully by delivering the agreed-upon project scope within time, cost, and quality constraints.
- (marked)A(n) describes how things should be done.
- is a project management methodology that defines 45 separate subprocesses and organizes these into eight process groups.
- are people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents to the project.
- A(n) is a document that includes stakeholders' roles, names, organizations, and contact information.
- A(n) is a meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans.
- A risk register is the output of .
- The is a very important tool in project management because it provides the basis for deciding how to do the work.
- the project includes work required to introduce any new hardware, software, and procedures into normal operations.
- (marked)A(n) is the person responsible for the business value of the project and for deciding what work to do and in what order when using a Scrum method.
- A(n) is a set period of time, normally two to four weeks, during which specific work must be completed and made ready for review when using Scrum methods.
- A(n) is the person who ensures that the team is productive, facilitates the daily Scrum, enables close cooperation across all roles and functions, and removes barriers that prevent the team from being effective.
- A(n) is a cross-functional team of five to nine people who organize themselves and the work to produce the desired results for each sprint.
- In Scrum, a(n) is a useful object created by people.
- A(n) is a Scrum artifact and consists of the highest-priority items from the product backlog to be completed in a sprint.
- (marked) are short descriptions written by customers of what they need a Scrum system to do for them.
- involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a project's life cycle.
- involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of the project.
- involves determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses, studying opportunities and threats, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services.
- A(n) involves analyzing a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, and is used to aid in strategic planning.
- is a technique that uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.
- refer to undesirable situations that prevent an organization from achieving its goals.
- refer to chances to improve the organization.
- are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
- analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.
- A positive NPV means the return from a project exceeds the , the return available by investing the capital elsewhere.
- is the result of subtracting the project costs from the benefits and then dividing by the costs.
- The is the discount rate that results in an NPV of zero for a project.
- (marked)A(n) is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria.
- (marked)A(n) is a methodology that converts value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
- factors include relevant government or industry standards, the organization's infrastructure, and marketplace conditions.
- (marked) include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, guidelines, information systems, financial systems, management systems, lessons learned, and historical information that can be used to influence a project's success.
- (marked) project work includes collecting, measuring, and disseminating performance information.
- A(n) is the approved project management plan plus approved changes.
- (marked) involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle.
- A(n) is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project.
- A category of software that can help align projects with business strategy is called tools.
- includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project.
- refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
- (marked)The main outputs of are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.
- Creating the involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
- refer to "conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification."
- (marked)A(n) is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.
- (marked)The main outputs of scope definition are the and project document updates.
- A(n) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.
- subdividing the project deliverables into smaller pieces is known as .
- The includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.
- Tasks in a WBS that are decomposed into smaller tasks are called tasks.
- PMI uses the term "" to describe each level of work in the WBS.
- A work package is a task at the level of the WBS.
- (marked)Some organizations prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. These are known as .
- In the approach to creating a WBS, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible.
- is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas when creating a WBS.
- A(n) is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.
- is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
- (marked)The main tool for performing scope validation is and group decision making techniques.
- involves controlling changes to the project scope while keeping project goals and business strategy in mind.
- is the difference between planned and actual performance.
- involves developing a working replica(仿製品) of the system or some aspect of the system.
- (marked) is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
- In a project schedule, the variable that has the least amount of flexibility is .
- involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project.
- In project time management, the process of involves deciding how many people, equipment, and materials a project team should use to perform project activities.
- After reviewing the project management plan, project charter, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets, the project team uses expert judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings to develop the .
- The is a tabulation(表格) of activities to be included on a project schedule.
- The activity list should include the , an activity identifier, and a brief description of the activity.
- In the activity defining process, the project team should review the and activity attributes with project stakeholders before moving on to the next step in project time management.
- (marked)A(n) is a schematic display of the logical relationships among project activities and their sequencing.
- In a network diagram, a(n) is the starting and ending point of an activity.
- In a(n) relationship, the "from" activity must start before the "to" activity can be finished.
- have no duration and no resources but are occasionally needed on AOA network diagrams to show logical relationships between activities.
- (marked)A hierarchical structure that identifies the project's resources by category and type is known as a(n) .
- is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task.
- Duration estimates can be provided as a discrete number, a range, or as a(n) .
- The ultimate goal of developing a realistic project schedule is to provide a basis for monitoring project progress for the dimension of the project.
- A(n) Gantt chart compares planned and actual project schedule information.
- A white diamond on a Tracking Gantt chart represents a(n) .
- A(n) for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed.
- A(n) determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity in a project.
- The is based on the fact that any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that limits its ability to achieve more of its goal.
- occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time.
- states that if something can go wrong, it will.
- (marked)The main outputs of include work performance measurements, organizational process assets updates, and project document updates.
- (marked)One of the first reality checks on scheduling that a project manager should make is to review the .
- A drawback of using or sample files is that managers and their teams might rely heavily on them and ignore unique concerns for their particular projects.
- The additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual costs exceed estimates is known as a(n) .
- The main output of the planning cost management process is a(n) .
- (marked)The main outputs of the process are activity cost estimates, basis of estimates, and project document updates.
- (marked)The main outputs of the process are a cost performance baseline, project funding requirements, and project document updates.
- (marked) are revenues(總收入) minus expenditures(開銷).
- costing helps to see a big-picture view of the cost of a project throughout its life cycle.
- costing considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a project.
- (marked)Project managers must conduct cash flow analysis to determine .
- The theory states that when many items are produced repetitively(多次重複地), the unit cost of those items decreases in a regular pattern as more units are produced.
- (marked)Project costs, like project schedules, grow out of the basic documents that initiate a project, like the .
- A(n) estimate is done very early in a project or even before a project is officially started.
- The timeframe for a(n) estimate is often three or more years prior to project completion.
- (marked)In practice, many people find that using a combination or hybrid approach involving analogous, bottom up, and/or parametric modeling provides the best .
- Project cost estimates are allocated to work items which are based on the activities in the for the project.
- (marked)A(n) is a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance.
- (marked)(marked)In addition to providing input for budgetary estimates, the process of provides a cost baseline.
- A cost management plan is a subsidiary of the plan.
- (marked) is a project performance measurement technique that integrates scope, time, and cost data.
- A(n) is the original project plan plus approved changes.
- (marked)The ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during the life of the project or activity is known as the .
- The is the portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period.
- The total direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period is known as the .
- (marked)The is based on the original planned costs for the project or activity and the rate at which the team is completing work on the project or activity to date.
- The index is the ratio of earned value to planned value.
- (marked)The cost performance index can be used to calculate the which gives an approximate cost of completing a project based on performance to date.
- The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines as "the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs."
- (marked)The term means a product can be used as it was intended.
- (marked)The purpose of is to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
- (marked)Performing involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
- Performing involves monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality.
- (marked) is a quality planning technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process.
- are the screens and reports the system generates.
- is the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions.
- (marked)A(n) is a structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects.
- (marked) correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements.
- diagrams trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations.
- (marked)In a , the closer data points are to a diagonal line, the more closely the two variables are related.
- (marked) involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
- (marked)Complete the formula: sample size = 0.25 * ( / acceptable error)2
- In the DMAIC process, the letter “C” stands for .
- (marked) measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data.
- (marked)The represents the number of units handled correctly through the process steps.
- (marked) is a measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunities.
- Watts S. Humphrey defines a(n) as anything that must be changed before delivery of the program.
- are groups of non-supervisors and work leaders in a single company department who volunteer to conduct group studies on how to improve the effectiveness of work in their department.
- (marked)Genichi Taguchi's methods focus on eliminating(消除) defects by substituting scientific inquiry(追究) for trial-and-error methods.
- (marked)The means taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations.
- (marked)The model focuses on defining user requirements and planning software projects.
- (marked) issues that affect how people work and how well they work include motivation, influence and power, and effectiveness.
- (marked) causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty.
- (marked)According to Maslow, only after meeting needs can individuals act upon growth needs.
- Herzberg called factors that cause job satisfaction .
- should receive frequent performance feedback, and although money is not an important motivator to them, it is an effective form of feedback.
- (marked)The is a tool to measure the individual needs of different people using McClelland's categories.
- Managers who believe in McGregor's assume that individuals do not inherently dislike work, but consider it as natural as play or rest.
- is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do.
- power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority.
- is the concept that the whole is equal to more than the sum of its parts.
- Covey, like Maslow, believes that people have the ability to be and choose their responses to different situations.
- is listening with the intent to understand.
- is a relation of harmony, conformity(遵從), accord(一致), or affinity(喜好) and is important for communication.
- (marked) fill in for project managers in their absence(缺席) and assist them as needed.
- (marked)A(n) or draft contract often provides the basis for defining and finalizing work requirements.
- The allocates work to responsible and performing organizations, teams, or individuals, depending on the desired level of detail.
- (marked)A(n) is a specific type of organizational chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for which work items.
- means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time.
- Resource aims to minimize period-by-period variations in resource loading by shifting tasks within their slack(鬆懈的) allowances.
- (marked)In the Tuckman model, involves the break-up of the team after it successfully reaches its goals and completes the work.
- In the DISC profile, the letter "S" represents .
- According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use the mode retreat(撤退) from an actual or potential disagreement.
- Many experts agree that the greatest threat to the success of any project, especially information technology projects, is a failure to .
- (marked)The outputs of the process are communications management plan and project documents updates.
- monitoring and controlling project communications to ensure that stakeholder communication needs are met.
- can create communication problems; words may have different meanings in different languages.
- Project managers should try to the size of teams or sub teams to avoid making communications too complex.
- Many information technology professionals work on projects where they never meet their project sponsors, other team members, or other project stakeholders.
- A(n) is a document that guides project communications.
- A(n) must include suggested methods or technologies for conveying the information.
- (marked)The analysis includes information such as the contact person for the information, when the information is due, and the preferred format for the information.
- communication happens when two or more people to exchange information via meetings, phone calls, or video conferencing.
- While trying to assess commitment of project stakeholders, a(n) meeting or a Web conference might be the most appropriate medium to use.
- (marked) are normally provided as status reports or progress reports.
- often create consolidated(加固的) progress reports based on the information received from team members.
- (marked)An important technique for is the status review meeting.
- The main goal of controlling communications is to ensure the optimal flow of information throughout the entire .
- A(n) can be a vehicle for fostering(鼓勵) team building and reinforcing(加固) expectations, roles, relationships, and commitment to the project.
- All meetings must have a(n) and intended outcome.
- A(n) forces meeting organizers to plan the meeting and gives potential participants the chance to decide whether they need to attend.
- (marked)A(n) allows users to create custom Web sites to access documents and applications stored on shared devices.
- Microsoft Office Enterprise Project Management Solution has a(n) tool that provides a centralized and consolidated view of programs and projects.