Project Human Resource Management Back

1. Processes

  1. Planning human resource management
    • Empathic(神入的) listening is listening with the intent to understand.
    • Rapport is a relation of harmony, conformity(遵從), accord(一致), or affinity(喜好) and is important for communication.
    • Mirroring is the matching of certain behaviors of the other person, a technique to help establish rapport.
    • Developing the Human Resource Plan
      • Involves identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
      • Contents include:
        • project organizational charts
        • staffing management plan
          • A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the project team.
        • responsibility assignment matrixes(RAM)
          • A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the WBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the OBS.
        • resource histograms
          • A resource histogram is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
        • RACI charts
          • R: responsibility
          • A: accountability(責任)
          • C: consultation(諮詢)
          • I: informed
  2. Acquiring the project team
    • Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods.
    • Overallocation means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time.
    • Resource leveling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks.
  3. Developing the project team
  4. Managing the project team

2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  • Intrinsic(內在的) motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment.
  • Extrinsic(外在的) motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty.

3. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

4. Herzberg's Motivational and Hygiene Factors

  • motivational factors: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, which produce job satisfaction.
  • hygiene(健康) factors: cause dissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workers to do more. Examples include larger salaries, more supervision, and a more attractive work environment.

5. McClelland's Acquired-Needs Theory

  • Achievement(nAch): Achievers like challenging projects with achievable goals and lots of feedback.
  • Affiliation(nAff, 加入): People with high nAff desire harmonious relationships and need to feel accepted by others, so managers should try to create a cooperative work environment for them.
  • Power(nPow): People with a need for power desire either personal power (not good) or institutional(機構的) power (good for the organization). Provide institutional power seekers with management opportunities.

6. McGregor's Theory X and Y

  • Theory X: assumes workers dislike and avoid work, so managers must use coercion(脅迫), threats and various control schemes to get workers to meet objectives.
  • Theory Y: assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of esteem(尊重) and self-actualization needs.
  • Theory Z: introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values.

7. Thamhain and Wilemon's Influence and Power

8. Convey's 7 Habits

9. Conflict Handling Modes

  • Confrontation(對抗): Directly face a conflict using a problem-solving approach
  • Compromise(妥協): Use a give-and-take approach
  • Smoothing: De-emphasize areas of difference and emphasize areas of agreement
  • Forcing: The win-lose approach
  • Withdrawal: Retreat or withdraw from an actual or potential disagreement
  • Collaborating: Decision makers incorporate different viewpoints and insights to develop consensus( 共識) and commitment

10. Q&A

  • What involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project?
    • Planning human resource management
    • Acquiring the project team
    • Developing the project team
    • Managing the project team

answer: Acquiring the project team.

  • Key outputs of which process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates?
    • managing the project team
    • developing the project team
    • acquiring the project team
    • planning the human resource plan

answer: acquiring the project team.

  • Recognizing an employee as the "Star Performer of the Month" would be satisfying which need of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
    • esteem
    • physiological
    • self-actualization
    • safety

answer: esteem.

  • The bottom four needs in Maslow's structure are referred to as which needs?
    • self-actualization
    • safety
    • deficiency
    • growth

answer: deficiency.

  • People with a high need for which seek to excel and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile?
    • affiliation
    • power
    • security
    • achievement

answer: achievement.

  • What presents subjects with a series of ambiguous pictures and asks them to develop a spontaneous story for each picture, assuming they will project their own needs into the story?
    • RAM
    • TAT
    • MBTI
    • RACI

answer: TAT.

  • What emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers?
    • Theory W
    • Theory Y
    • Theory X
    • Theory Z

answer: Theory Z.

  • According to Thamhain and Wilemon, what is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders?
    • authority
    • expertise
    • achievement
    • self-actualization

answer: authority.

  • According to Thamhain and Wilemon, what is the ability to improve a worker's position?
    • penalty
    • expertise
    • assignment
    • promotion

answer: promotion.

  • What involves using incentives to induce people to do things.
    • Legitimate power
    • Reward power
    • Coercive power
    • Referent power

answer: Reward power.

  • The first step in the framework for defining and assigning work is what?
    • defining how the work will be accomplished
    • breaking down the work into manageable elements
    • finalizing the project requirements
    • assigning work responsibilities

answer: finalizing the project requirements.

  • What is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time?
    • responsibility assignment matrix
    • RACI charts
    • resource histogram
    • organizational breakdown structure

answer: resource histogram.

  • What refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods?
    • Resource loading
    • Resource histogram
    • Resource leveling
    • Resource logs

answer: Resource loading.

  • What is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks?
    • Resource loading
    • Resource allocation
    • Resource leveling
    • Resource histogram

answer: Resource leveling.

  • In the MBTI, which dimension relates to the manner in which you gather information?
    • Extrovert/Introvert
    • Judgment/Perception
    • Thinking/Feeling
    • Sensation/Intuition

answer: Sensation/Intuition.

  • Psychologist David Merril describes what as reactive and task-oriented?
    • "Expressives"
    • "Analyticals"
    • "Drivers"
    • "Amiables"

answer: "Analyticals".

  • According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use which method use a give-and take-approach to resolving conflicts?
    • smoothing
    • confrontation
    • forcing
    • compromise

answer: compromise.

  • According to Lencioni, which of the following qualities is present in organizations that succeed?
    • Commitment
    • Accountability
    • Autonomy
    • Teamwork

answer: Teamwork.

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