Project Scope Management Back

1. Definition

  • Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
  • A deliverable is a product produced as part of a project, such as hardware or software, planning documents, or meeting minutes(會議紀要)
  • Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project

2. Processes

  1. Plan scope management
    • To use expert judgment to develop the scope management plan.
  2. Collect requirements
    • To use expert judgment to develop the requirements management plan.
    • For some IT projects, it is helpful to divide requirements development into categories called elicitation(抽出), analysis, specification, and validation.
    • It is important to use an iterative(迭代的) approach to defining requirements since they are often unclear early in a project.
    • A requirements traceability matrix (RTM, 需求追溯模型) is a table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed.
  3. Define scope
    • Project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria(用戶接受標準), and detailed information on all project deliverables.
  4. Create WBS
    • A Work breakdown structure(WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
    • Decomposition(分解) is subdividing(細分) project deliverables into smaller pieces.
    • A work package(工作包) is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.
    • The scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.
  5. Validate scope
    • Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. (Acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables)
  6. Control scope
    • Scope control involves controlling changes to the project scope.
    • Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance.

2. Cost of correcting

3. Approaches to develope WBS

  • Analog approach(類比法): Review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to(適應) your project.
  • Top-down approach(自上而下法): Start with the largest items of the project and break them down.
  • Bottom-up approach(自底向上法): Start with the specific tasks and roll them up.
  • Mind-mapping approach: a technique that uses branches radiating out(分流) from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.

4. WBS Dictionary

  • A WBS dictionary is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.

5 Q&A

  • What involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them?
    • Collecting requirements
    • Controlling scope
    • Defining scope
    • Validating scope

answer: Collecting requirements.

  • What documents how project needs will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
    • requirements traceability matrix
    • WBS
    • requirements management plan
    • project scope statement

answer: requirements management plan.

  • Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization is known as what?
    • variance
    • prototyping
    • benchmarking
    • decomposition

answer: benchmarking.

  • Which is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project?
    • project charter
    • project scope statement
    • business case
    • work breakdown structure

answer: WBS.

  • Which should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project?
    • project charter
    • WBS
    • scope statement
    • Gantt chart

answer: scope statement.

  • What refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system?
    • Prototyping
    • Decomposition
    • Variance
    • Use case modeling

answer: Prototyping.

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