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Graduation Thesis(畢業論文) Back

  • Title: Dynamical Content Injection of videos(視頻動態植入內容)
  • Tools: OpenCV, Ffmpeg, Imagemagick
  • Translation: works


  1. For entities whose corners are easy to track like quadrangles, we're going to use LucasKanade Optical Flow Tracking to complete injection.

    • the first thing to do is to use Feature Detection to detect strong corners in the first frame of the video.
    • then we can find out four corners of those entities to choose
    • after chosing 4 points, we will continue to track these points in the videos, and output positions of these 4 points in the following frames.
    • with data of those points, we can present an other layer of image above the video with CSS in HTML.
  2. For entities whose have not any corners, there are some problems to solute (we are going to detect the motion of the camera.)

    • how to detect whether the image of the video has changed suddenly
      • Solution: use a feature point to track and monitoring the distance between the prev frame and the next frame. When the distance is more than a specific value.
    • how to judge whether the camera is static.
      • Testing: tracking all the points and find out two points which has not moved too much, then we will consider it to be static.
    • how to calculate the shift of x-axis and y-axis
    • how to calculate the shift of z-axis
  3. Reverse tracking for calculating the upper edge frame:

    • there are some problems about OpenCV, because it cannot jump to a specific frame correctly, and tracking in reverse order should use VideoCapture::set(CV_CAP_PROP_POS_FRAMES, n) to reset.
  4. Face replacement
    • real time problem
    • image size problem


  1. the func VideoCapture::set(CV_CAP_PROP_POS_FRAMES, n) will lose a little precision in different systems, due to its computions of float type.

    • Solution: use while to read from the start, but it will cause severe problem of efficiency.
  2. how to generate rebuild video with an overlay image.

    • Solution:

      • i. Calc data with video and tracking points(video_width, video_height, 4 points, area_width, area_height)
      • ii. Contract all the frames with ffmpeg

        ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -r "[video-rate]" "frame/f_%1d.png"
      • iii. Start to combine two image

        • Get the image size with Imagemagick (logo_width, logo_height):

          identify -format "{\"width\": %[fx:w], \"height\": %[fx:h]}" overlay.png
          # or 
          identify -format "{\"width\": %w, \"height\": %h}" overlay.png
        • Add padding to an image with Imagemagick:

          • area_width > area_height:
            • overlay_pad_width = logo_height 2 (area_width / area_height)
            • overlay_pad_height = logo_height * 2
          • area_width <= area_height:

            • overlay_pad_width = logo_width * 2
            • overlay_pad_height = logo_width 2 (area_height / area_width)
            convert "overlay.png" -background transparent -gravity center -extent "[overlay_pad_width]x[overlay_pad_height]" overlay_pad.png
        • Change the image's size to the size of video and change perspective and it depends:

          • the image is smaller than the video:

            • add padding:

              convert "overlay_pad.png" -background transparent -extent "[video_width]x[video_height]" mask.png
            • perspective:

              convert "mask.png" -matte -mattecolor transparent -virtual-pixel transparent\
              -distort Perspective\
              '0,0 point[0].x,point[0].y\
              0,overlay_pad_height point[1].x,point[1].y\
              overlay_pad_width,0 point[2].x,point[2].y\
              overlay_pad_width,overlay_pad_height point[3].x,point[3].y' output.png
          • the image is larger than the video:

            • crop without changing the ratio:

              convert "overlay_pad.png" -resize "[video_width]x[video_height]" resize.png
              convert "resize.png" -background transparent -extent "[video_width]x[video_height]" mask.png
            • get size of resize.png (resize_width, resize_height)

              identify -format "{\"width\": %[fx:w], \"height\": %[fx:h]}" resize.png
              # or 
              identify -format "{\"width\": %w, \"height\": %h}" resize.png
            • perspective:

              convert "mask.png" -matte -mattecolor transparent -virtual-pixel transparent\
              -distort Perspective\
              '0,0 point[0].x,point[0].y\
              0,resize_height point[1].x,point[1].y\
              resize_width,0 point[2].x,point[2].y\
              resize_width,resize_height point[3].x,point[3].y' output.png
  3. put text to image

    • Solution:

      convert \
           -size 165x70 \
        xc:lightblue \
        -font Bookman-DemiItalic \
        -pointsize 12 \
        -fill blue \
        -gravity center \
        -draw "text 0,0 '$(cat file.txt)'" \
  4. handle real time live stream

    • Solution:

      1. read camera from a network stream

        VideoCapture cam;


Handle Frames
video size video length handled frames number result time
1920x1080 79s 47 10564ms
1920x1080 79s 394 1587437ms
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