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This document specifies the core ESTree AST node types that support the ES5 grammar.

Node objects

ESTree AST nodes are represented as Node objects, which may have any prototype inheritance but which implement the following interface:

interface Node {
    type: string;
    loc: SourceLocation | null;

The type field is a string representing the AST variant type. Each subtype of Node is documented below with the specific string of its type field. You can use this field to determine which interface a node implements.

The loc field represents the source location information of the node. If the node contains no information about the source location, the field is null; otherwise it is an object consisting of a start position (the position of the first character of the parsed source region) and an end position (the position of the first character after the parsed source region):

interface SourceLocation {
    source: string | null;
    start: Position;
    end: Position;

Each Position object consists of a line number (1-indexed) and a column number (0-indexed):

interface Position {
    line: number; // >= 1
    column: number; // >= 0


interface Identifier <: Expression, Pattern {
    type: "Identifier";
    name: string;

An identifier. Note that an identifier may be an expression or a destructuring pattern.


interface Literal <: Expression {
    type: "Literal";
    value: string | boolean | null | number | RegExp;

A literal token. Note that a literal can be an expression.


interface RegExpLiteral <: Literal {
  regex: {
    pattern: string;
    flags: string;

The regex property allows regexes to be represented in environments that don’t support certain flags such as y or u. In environments that don't support these flags value will be null as the regex can't be represented natively.


interface Program <: Node {
    type: "Program";
    body: [ Directive | Statement ];

A complete program source tree.


interface Function <: Node {
    id: Identifier | null;
    params: [ Pattern ];
    body: FunctionBody;

A function declaration or expression.


interface Statement <: Node { }

Any statement.


interface ExpressionStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ExpressionStatement";
    expression: Expression;

An expression statement, i.e., a statement consisting of a single expression.


interface Directive <: Node {
    type: "ExpressionStatement";
    expression: Literal;
    directive: string;

A directive from the directive prologue of a script or function. The directive property is the raw string source of the directive without quotes.


interface BlockStatement <: Statement {
    type: "BlockStatement";
    body: [ Statement ];

A block statement, i.e., a sequence of statements surrounded by braces.


interface FunctionBody <: BlockStatement {
    body: [ Directive | Statement ];

The body of a function, which is a block statement that may begin with directives.


interface EmptyStatement <: Statement {
    type: "EmptyStatement";

An empty statement, i.e., a solitary semicolon.


interface DebuggerStatement <: Statement {
    type: "DebuggerStatement";

A debugger statement.


interface WithStatement <: Statement {
    type: "WithStatement";
    object: Expression;
    body: Statement;

A with statement.

Control flow

interface ReturnStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ReturnStatement";
    argument: Expression | null;

A return statement.

interface LabeledStatement <: Statement {
    type: "LabeledStatement";
    label: Identifier;
    body: Statement;

A labeled statement, i.e., a statement prefixed by a break/continue label.

interface BreakStatement <: Statement {
    type: "BreakStatement";
    label: Identifier | null;

A break statement.

interface ContinueStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ContinueStatement";
    label: Identifier | null;

A continue statement.


interface IfStatement <: Statement {
    type: "IfStatement";
    test: Expression;
    consequent: Statement;
    alternate: Statement | null;

An if statement.

interface SwitchStatement <: Statement {
    type: "SwitchStatement";
    discriminant: Expression;
    cases: [ SwitchCase ];

A switch statement.

interface SwitchCase <: Node {
    type: "SwitchCase";
    test: Expression | null;
    consequent: [ Statement ];

A case (if test is an Expression) or default (if test === null) clause in the body of a switch statement.


interface ThrowStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ThrowStatement";
    argument: Expression;

A throw statement.

interface TryStatement <: Statement {
    type: "TryStatement";
    block: BlockStatement;
    handler: CatchClause | null;
    finalizer: BlockStatement | null;

A try statement. If handler is null then finalizer must be a BlockStatement.

interface CatchClause <: Node {
    type: "CatchClause";
    param: Pattern;
    body: BlockStatement;

A catch clause following a try block.


interface WhileStatement <: Statement {
    type: "WhileStatement";
    test: Expression;
    body: Statement;

A while statement.

interface DoWhileStatement <: Statement {
    type: "DoWhileStatement";
    body: Statement;
    test: Expression;

A do/while statement.

interface ForStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ForStatement";
    init: VariableDeclaration | Expression | null;
    test: Expression | null;
    update: Expression | null;
    body: Statement;

A for statement.

interface ForInStatement <: Statement {
    type: "ForInStatement";
    left: VariableDeclaration |  Pattern;
    right: Expression;
    body: Statement;

A for/in statement.


interface Declaration <: Statement { }

Any declaration node. Note that declarations are considered statements; this is because declarations can appear in any statement context.


interface FunctionDeclaration <: Function, Declaration {
    type: "FunctionDeclaration";
    id: Identifier;

A function declaration. Note that unlike in the parent interface Function, the id cannot be null.


interface VariableDeclaration <: Declaration {
    type: "VariableDeclaration";
    declarations: [ VariableDeclarator ];
    kind: "var";

A variable declaration.

interface VariableDeclarator <: Node {
    type: "VariableDeclarator";
    id: Pattern;
    init: Expression | null;

A variable declarator.


interface Expression <: Node { }

Any expression node. Since the left-hand side of an assignment may be any expression in general, an expression can also be a pattern.


interface ThisExpression <: Expression {
    type: "ThisExpression";

A this expression.


interface ArrayExpression <: Expression {
    type: "ArrayExpression";
    elements: [ Expression | null ];

An array expression. An element might be null if it represents a hole in a sparse array. E.g. [1,,2].


interface ObjectExpression <: Expression {
    type: "ObjectExpression";
    properties: [ Property ];

An object expression.

interface Property <: Node {
    type: "Property";
    key: Literal | Identifier;
    value: Expression;
    kind: "init" | "get" | "set";

A literal property in an object expression can have either a string or number as its value. Ordinary property initializers have a kind value "init"; getters and setters have the kind values "get" and "set", respectively.


interface FunctionExpression <: Function, Expression {
    type: "FunctionExpression";

A function expression.

Unary operations

interface UnaryExpression <: Expression {
    type: "UnaryExpression";
    operator: UnaryOperator;
    prefix: boolean;
    argument: Expression;

A unary operator expression.

enum UnaryOperator {
    "-" | "+" | "!" | "~" | "typeof" | "void" | "delete"

A unary operator token.

interface UpdateExpression <: Expression {
    type: "UpdateExpression";
    operator: UpdateOperator;
    argument: Expression;
    prefix: boolean;

An update (increment or decrement) operator expression.

enum UpdateOperator {
    "++" | "--"

An update (increment or decrement) operator token.

Binary operations

interface BinaryExpression <: Expression {
    type: "BinaryExpression";
    operator: BinaryOperator;
    left: Expression;
    right: Expression;

A binary operator expression.

enum BinaryOperator {
    "==" | "!=" | "===" | "!=="
         | "<" | "<=" | ">" | ">="
         | "<<" | ">>" | ">>>"
         | "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "%"
         | "|" | "^" | "&" | "in"
         | "instanceof"

A binary operator token.

interface AssignmentExpression <: Expression {
    type: "AssignmentExpression";
    operator: AssignmentOperator;
    left: Pattern | Expression;
    right: Expression;

An assignment operator expression.

enum AssignmentOperator {
    "=" | "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "%="
        | "<<=" | ">>=" | ">>>="
        | "|=" | "^=" | "&="

An assignment operator token.

interface LogicalExpression <: Expression {
    type: "LogicalExpression";
    operator: LogicalOperator;
    left: Expression;
    right: Expression;

A logical operator expression.

enum LogicalOperator {
    "||" | "&&"

A logical operator token.

interface MemberExpression <: Expression, Pattern {
    type: "MemberExpression";
    object: Expression;
    property: Expression;
    computed: boolean;

A member expression. If computed is true, the node corresponds to a computed (a[b]) member expression and property is an Expression. If computed is false, the node corresponds to a static (a.b) member expression and property is an Identifier.


interface ConditionalExpression <: Expression {
    type: "ConditionalExpression";
    test: Expression;
    alternate: Expression;
    consequent: Expression;

A conditional expression, i.e., a ternary ?/: expression.


interface CallExpression <: Expression {
    type: "CallExpression";
    callee: Expression;
    arguments: [ Expression ];

A function or method call expression.


interface NewExpression <: Expression {
    type: "NewExpression";
    callee: Expression;
    arguments: [ Expression ];

A new expression.


interface SequenceExpression <: Expression {
    type: "SequenceExpression";
    expressions: [ Expression ];

A sequence expression, i.e., a comma-separated sequence of expressions.


Destructuring binding and assignment are not part of ES5, but all binding positions accept Pattern to allow for destructuring in ES6. Nevertheless, for ES5, the only Pattern subtype is Identifier.

interface Pattern <: Node { }
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