Introduction Back

1. Importance of project management

  • A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful in meeting scope, time, and cost goals; over 31% of IT projects were canceled before completion.
  • A PricewaterhouseCoopers study found that overall half of all projects fail and only 2.5% of corporations consistently meet their targets for scope, time, and cost goals for all types of project.
  • Advantages of using formal project management:
    • Better control of financial, physical, and human resources
    • Improved customer relations
    • Shorter development times
    • Lower costs
    • Higher quality and increased reliability
    • Higher profit margins(利益邊際)
    • Improved productivity
    • Better internal coordination
    • Higher worker morale(士氣)

2. Definitons

  • Projects:
    • projects are unique.
    • operations(業務) is work done to sustain(支撐) the business.
    • end when:
      • their objectives have been reached
      • the project has been terminated.
    • can be large or small, and take a long or short time to complete.
  • Stakeholders: the people involved in of affected by project activities.
    • the project sponsor
    • the project manager
    • the project team
    • support staff
    • customers
    • users
    • suppliers
    • opponents(競爭對手) to the project

3. The triple constraint

  • there is a triple constraint of project management:
    • Scope:
      • What work will be done as part of the project?
      • What unique product, service or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project?
      • How will the scope verified(證實)?
    • Cost:
      • What should it cost to complete the project?
      • What is the project's budget?
      • How will costs be tracked?
      • Who can authorize changes to the budget?
    • Time:
      • How long it take to complete the project?
      • What is the project's schedule?
      • How will the team track actual schedule performance?
      • Who can approve changes to the schedule?
  • quadruple constraint includes quality as well.

4. The frameswork of project integration management

  • Knowledge Areas(KA):
    • Stakeholders(有權益關係者) Management: Helps you identify and manage relationship with people who can impact(衝擊) or who get impacted by the project.
    • Procurement(採購) Management: If at all some part of yor project work is to be done by an expert seller, this KA has all the know-how(專業知識) of how to deal with it.
    • Risk Management: There will be plenty of threats as well as opportunities. Identify them. Analyze them. Prepare for them. When they do happen, address and control them!
    • Communication Management: Helps you keep all stakeholders in the know. Distribute right information to the right people at the right time.
    • Human Resources Management: People, People, People! A crucial(至關重要的) element of success for any project. And, most challenging for the Project Manager. Why? Because dealing with people needs great deal of interpersonal(人際) skills!
    • Integration Management(the start point): integrating processes covers from Initiating to Closing of the project or phase.
    • Scope Management: Helps you understand stakeholders' expectations out of the project. (very crucial)
    • Time Management: You will be able to identify project activities, identify dependencies, estimate ther resource and durations are estimated, and create project schedure right here!
    • Cost Management: Address all type of costs - direct & indirect costs, related to quality, resources, risks and procurement.
    • Quality Management: Figure out what is needed to ensure that project produces PSR(product/service/result) that is in line with stakeholders' expectations - not more, not less!

5. Factors to help projects succeed

  • User involvement
  • Executive support(行政支持)
  • Clear business objectives
  • Emotional maturity(情感成熟度)
  • Optimizing scope(樂觀領域)
  • Agile process
  • Project mangement expertice(專業知識)
  • Skilled resources
  • Execution
  • Tools and infrastructure(基礎設施)

6. Q&A

  • What is the difference between projects and operations?

answer: Projects are temporary endeavors whereas an organization's operations are ongoing in nature.

  • Which project management knowledge areas is an overarching function that affects and is affected by the different knowledge areas?

answer: Project Integration Management

  • Is checklist a tool used in quality management?

answer: Yes.

  • Which of the following tools can best hep in efficient communication management?
    • Kick-off meetings
    • Requests for quotes
    • Impact matrices
    • Fast tracking

answer: Kick-off meetings.

  • What is the difference between project management and portfolio management?

answer: Project management addresses specific short-term goals whereas portfolio management focuses on long-term goals.

  • Martha works as a project manager at a bank. Due to certain changes in external factors, Martha needs to make a few alterations in the tactical goals of her project. In such a scenario, which of the following will best help Martha cope with the change?
    • Negotiation
    • Project environment knowledge
    • Motivation
    • Soft skills

answer: Project environment knowledge.

  • Which is the organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization?

answer: Project Management Office.

  • Which of the following provides certification as a Project Management Professional?
    • PMS
    • PMI
    • PMC
    • PMP

answer: PMI.

  • Which of the following refers to a set of principles that guides decision making based on personal values of what is considered right and wrong?
    • Ethics
    • Civics
    • Laws
    • Politics

answer: Ethics.

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